Invited articles on the frontiers of muon spectroscopy
We are pleased to present a series of 10 invited articles, celebrating 25 years of muon science at the ISIS facility. These papers will be free to read until the end of February 2014.
Coming soon—Nobel Symposium 154: Physics of the Large Hadron Collider
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Physica Scripta is also planning to publish a teaching paper on the Higgs boson, 'The Higgs Bridge', intended for lecturers and students alike. Click here for a list of our teaching papers, known as Comments.
3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices
Papers resulting from this event in Belgrade, in 2012, have now been published as a Topical issue. This conference followed previous successful ICOM conferences held in 2006 and 2009 and provided a further opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials.
New editorial management system for IOP Publishing – LIVE
As part of our commitment to provide the best possible publishing service to our authors and referees, we are pleased to announce that Physica Scripta is now using ScholarOne Manuscripts for submission and peer-review management. If you wish to submit a new article to this journal please use the 'Submit an article' link on the right-hand side of this page, which will now take you to our new submission site. Please note that articles submitted before the move will remain in our previous system until the peer-review process is complete. Further information about the move, including the benefits for authors and referees, is available at iopscience.org/scholarone.
In the last 30 days
Garry Robinson and Ian Robinson 2013 Phys. Scr. 88 018101
In this paper the differential equations which govern the motion of a spherical projectile rotating about an arbitrary axis in the presence of an arbitrary ‘wind’ are developed. Three forces are assumed to act on the projectile: (i) gravity, (ii) a drag force proportional to the square of the projectile's velocity and in the opposite direction to this velocity and (iii) a lift or ‘Magnus’ force also assumed to be proportional to the square of the projectile's velocity and in a direction perpendicular to both this velocity and the angular velocity vector of the projectile. The problem has been coded in Matlab and some illustrative model trajectories are presented for ‘ball-games’, specifically golf and cricket, although the equations could equally well be applied to other ball-games such as tennis, soccer or baseball.
Spin about an arbitrary axis allows for the treatment of situations where, for example, the spin has a component about the direction of travel. In the case of a cricket ball the subtle behaviour of so-called ‘drift’, particularly ‘late drift’, and also ‘dip’, which may be produced by a slow bowler's off or leg-spin, are investigated. It is found that the trajectories obtained are broadly in accord with those observed in practice. We envisage that this paper may be useful in two ways: (i) for its inherent scientific value as, to the best of our knowledge, the fundamental equations derived here have not appeared in the literature and (ii) in cultivating student interest in the numerical solution of differential equations, since so many of them actively participate in ball-games, and they will be able to compare their own practical experience with the overall trends indicated by the numerical results.
As the paper presents equations which can be further extended, it may be of interest to research workers. However, since only the most basic principles of fundamental mechanics are employed, it should be well within the grasp of first year university students in physics and engineering and, with the guidance of teachers, good final year secondary school students. The trajectory results included may be useful to sporting personnel with no formal training in physics.
K S Novoselov and A H Castro Neto 2012 Phys. Scr. 2012 014006
Graphene is just one example of a large class of two-dimensional crystals. These crystals can either be extracted from layered three-dimensional materials or grown artificially by several different methods. Furthermore, they present physical properties that are unique because of the low dimensionality and their special crystal structure. They have potential for semiconducting behavior, magnetism, superconductivity, and even more complex many-body phenomena. Two-dimensional crystals can also be assembled in three-dimensional heterostructures that do not exist in nature and have tailored properties, opening an entirely new chapter in condensed matter research.
Sukang Bae et al 2012 Phys. Scr. 2012 014024
Since the first isolation of graphene in 2004 by mechanical exfoliation from graphite, many people have tried to synthesize large-scale graphene using various chemical methods. In particular, there has been a great number of advances in the synthesis of graphene using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on metal substrates such as Ni and Cu. Recently, a method to synthesize ultra-large-scale (~30 inch) graphene films using roll-to-roll transfer and chemical doping processes was developed that shows excellent electrical and physical properties suitable for practical applications on a large scale. Considering the outstanding scalability/processibility of roll-to-roll and CVD methods as well as the extraordinary flexibility/conductivity of graphene films, we expect that transparent graphene electrodes can replace indium tin oxide in the near future.
Y Blumenfeld et al 2013 Phys. Scr. 2013 014023
Radioactive ion beam facilities are transforming nuclear science by making beams of exotic nuclei with various properties available for experiments. New infrastructures and development of existing installations enlarges the scientific scope continuously. An overview of the main production, separation and beam handling methods with focus on recent developments is done, as well as a survey of existing and forthcoming facilities world-wide.
A K Geim 2012 Phys. Scr. 2012 014003
After the 2010 Nobel Prize recognized the research breakthrough reported by our group in a 2004 paper, I feel that, as my contribution to the proceedings of the Nobel symposium held earlier in 2010, it is both appropriate and important to review pre-2004 scientific literature and acknowledge early ideas. With the benefit of hindsight, I also try to analyze why our first graphene paper has attracted so much interest.
Orion Ciftja 2013 Phys. Scr. 88 058302
Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron–electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes.
Klaus Blaum et al 2013 Phys. Scr. 2013 014017
Atomic physics techniques for the determination of ground-state properties of radioactive isotopes are very sensitive and provide accurate masses, binding energies, Q-values, charge radii, spins and electromagnetic moments. Many fields in nuclear physics benefit from these highly accurate numbers. They give insight into details of the nuclear structure for a better understanding of the underlying effective interactions, provide important input for studies of fundamental symmetries in physics, and help to understand the nucleosynthesis processes that are responsible for the observed chemical abundances in the Universe. Penning-trap and storage-ring mass spectrometry as well as laser spectroscopy of radioactive nuclei have now been used for a long time but significant progress has been achieved in these fields within the last decade. The basic principles of laser spectroscopic investigations, Penning-trap and storage-ring mass measurements of short-lived nuclei are summarized and selected physics results are discussed.
Pirjo Pasanen et al 2012 Phys. Scr. 2012 014025
We discuss some aspects of how graphene could be used in mainstream electronic devices. The main focus is on signal processing applications in high-volume, industrially manufactured battery-powered devices, e.g. mobile phones and laptop computers, but we will also discuss applicability to other components like interconnects, wireless communication antennae and camera sensors, as well as novel types of signal processing devices, based on the unique physical properties of graphene.
Yong-Zhi Cheng et al 2013 Phys. Scr. 88 045703
We present the design of a wide-band metamaterial absorber, based on fractal frequency selective surface and resistive films. The total thickness is only 0.8 mm and shows a polarization-insensitive and wide-angle strong absorption. Due to the multiband resonance properties of the Minkowski fractal loop structure and Ohmic loss properties of resistive films, a strongly absorptive bandwidth of about 19 GHz is demonstrated numerically in the range 6.51–25.42 GHz. This design provides an effective and feasible way to construct a broad-band absorber in stealth technology.
Per Nordblad 2013 Phys. Scr. 88 058301
What does the equilibrium atomic, molecular or spin configuration of a glass phase look like? Is there only one unique equilibrium configuration or are there infinitely many configurations of equal energy? The processes and mechanisms governing the path towards equilibrium, i.e. the dynamics of glassy systems, provide insights to these questions. Here we discuss the intrinsic dynamics of different glassy magnets: of spin-glasses, frustrated ferromagnets, superspin-glasses and other nanostructured systems with competing ferro- and antiferromagnetic interactions and randomness in their spatial distribution. This paper is intended as a brief update on some unsolved problems and the current empirical status in the field of disordered and frustrated magnetism.